Our Perfect Son

October 3rd, 2009 by Dionna | 35 Comments
Posted in Circumcision/Intactivism, Compassionate Advocacy, Healthy Living, Just for Fun/Miscellaneous, My Family, natural parenting, Pregnancy and Birth

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While Kieran hasn’t reached that stage where he has discovered the real joy that is his penis, he is well aware of its existence. He can also distinguish between “boyyyys” and “guuuuls” and is more than happy (at 21 months) to inform a complete stranger that boys have a penis and girls have a vagina. He’s also entirely too young to care that I’m about to “out” him on the Internet:

Kieran is intact (aka “uncircumcised”).

You might find it amusing to know that one of the main reasons Tom and I decided not to circumcise Kieran was for the benefit of his future sexual pleasure. That’s right. We actually had a discussion (before we even knew whether Kieran was a boyyyy or a guuul) about the fact that someday, our potential son would be saying a silent thank you to us (or maybe out loud, who knows what would happen in the moment) for allowing him the blessing of having the full range of penile sensation. (More on that below)

Another of our main reasons? The fact that circumcision just isn’t necessary under our system of beliefs. And I’ll tell you the secret of what tipped the scales for Tom (I was convinced as soon as I saw pictures/video of what actually happens in a circumcision): it was our last appointment with our midwife. We were sitting around chatting and I broached the subject: “Can we please talk a little bit about circumcision?” My midwife looked up in surprise before responding: “For two people who recognize the benefits of a natural, unmedicated birth, immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, and responding to your baby’s needs, I’m surprised that you’d even consider mutilating your new baby’s penis.” Tom got it.

I’d like to share some of the information I’ve found on circumcision. Too often, American parents are culturally pressured into cutting their sons, but they are not exposed to any of the facts that would likely lead them to make a different decision. 46% of new parents are not even provided circumcision information by a doctor!1 I encourage you to share this post with your pregnant friends and family; the best decisions are informed ones.

There are at least four big arguments expounded by those in favor of circumcision. I’m going to address each one in turn, and I’ll give you several more reasons that support leaving your sons intact. (I implore you to read this, even though it is a bit lengthy. If you are a parent, you should never make a body-altering decision for your child unless you are fully informed. If you are not a parent, you should be aware of the facts of the most widely performed and wholly unnecessary medical procedure that insurance companies (and, consequently, you) pay for. If you have time, you should also check out Penn & Teller’s half hour episode on the subject: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3. And one more from Penn here.)

Myth #1: Circumcision prevents disease.

Fact: Circumcision does not protect against getting or giving sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s). Rather, the foreskin and its intact mucous membranes act as a barrier to infection.2 There is also no link between an intact penis and cancer.3

Circumcision does not prevent disease:

Despite an overwhelming lack of evidence, doctors have been claiming for decades that circumcision prevents all kinds of diseases: from AIDS to tuberculosis, cancer to poor eyesight, epilepsy to mental retardation, and many more in varying degrees of incredulity. No other medical procedure has been credited with preventing such a wide variety of diseases.4 In reality, circumcision began in the United States during the Victorian era. Its function? To punish boys for masturbating. Even into the 1970’s, medical textbooks recommended that doctors perform “routine circumcision as a way to prevent masturbation.”5 Following are quotes by two American doctors:

A remedy for masturbation which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision. The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anesthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment. In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement.6

To obtain the best results one must cut away enough skin and mucous membrane to rather put it on the stretch when erections come later. There must be no play in the skin after the wound has thoroughly healed, but it must fit tightly over the penis, for should there be any play the patient will be found to readily resume his practice not begrudging the time and extra energy required to produce the orgasm. . . We may not be sure that we have done away with the possibility of masturbation, but we may feel confident that we have limited it to within the danger lines.7

As Americans grew more liberal in their attitude toward sex, cutting proponents needed more effective arguments than masturbation prevention to encourage circumcision. Hence the panic-inducing reports that intact men are more likely to get cancer and STD’s – specifically, AIDS.

The myth that circumcision prevented cancer is credited to Abraham Ravich, a New York urologist who fought bitterly for compulsory circumcision. One of Ravich’s most incredible lies (completely unsupported by any medical evidence) is that “foreskin caused cancer in whatever body part it came in contact with.” He believed in a fantastical “smegma virus,” which migrated from the foreskin to infect its owner and his sexual partners.8

More recently, several studies (sponsored, incidentally, by circumcision advocates) have been released linking circumcision to lowered HIV rates.9 For purposes of these studies, doctors circumcised a group of African adult males. After a short observation period, the doctors concluded that circumcised males contracted HIV at a lower rate than the intact males. What you did not read in their reports, however, is that the newly circumcised males were required to remain abstinent after their foreskins were cut off; this fact, coupled with the early termination of the studies, lends itself to the conclusion that the studies were skewed in favor of the advocates’ (predetermined) findings. If the studies continued in time, it is likely that there would be little to no difference in HIV rates between the two groups of men. It also went unreported that these same circumcision advocates had previously done observational studies (where they simply kept track of men who were already circ’d; they did not circ the men). The observational studies failed to show any clear protective effect of circumcision.10

The amount of virus present in the body (called the “viral load”) “is the chief predictor of the risk of HIV transmission. . . . Male circumcision would not reduce viral loads[,]” so circumcision is an illogical means of reducing infection. Furthermore, “[t]he United States has the highest rate of HIV infection and the highest rate of male circumcision in the industrialized world. Male circumcision, therefore, cannot reasonably be thought to prevent HIV infection.”11)

Remaining intact is medically beneficial:

So if circumcision doesn’t prevent disease, are there any medical benefits to keeping one’s foreskin? Yes, yes, yes!

  • Protection: “Just as the eyelids protect the eyes, the foreskin protects the glans [the “head”] and keeps its surface soft, moist, and sensitive. It also maintains optimal warmth, pH balance, and cleanliness.”
  • Immunological Defense: “Glands in the foreskin produce antibacterial and antiviral proteins . . . . Plasma cells in the foreskin’s mucosal lining secrete immunoglobulins, antibodies that defend against infection.”
  • Proper Circulation: “Circumcision interrupts the normal circulation of blood throughout the penile skin system and glans. . . . The blood flowing into major penile arteries is obstructed by the line of scar tissue at the point of incision, creating backflow instead of feeding the branches and capillary networks beyond the scar.” This backflow may obstruct the flow of urine, which can necessitate corrective surgery.
  • Circumcision harms the developing brain: . . . [C]ircumcision has long-lasting detrimental effects on the developing brain, adversely altering the brain’s perception centers. Circumcised boys have a lower pain threshold than girls or intact boys.” There is also evidence of “deeper and more disturbing levels of neurological damage . . . .”
  • The consequences of circumcision: One in 500 babies will experience surgical complications from circumcision. “These complications include uncontrollable bleeding[,] fatal infections[,]” gangrene, pathogenic bacteria which can lead to infections and death, and the tragic mistake of a completely amputated or cauterized penis.12
  • Circumcised penises are actually more prone to infection: The foreskin acts as a shield to the glans, protecting it from urine, feces, dirt, and bacteria (particularly during the diaper-wearing years). A circumcised male does not have this protection, so he will be more apt to get irritations and infections, including infections of the urinary tract.13

Moral of the disease-prevention myth? Please, please don’t circumcise because you think it will make your child healthier. That simply isn’t true: you would actually be harming him.

Myth #2: Circumcision is more sanitary and easier to take care of.

Fact: A natural penis requires no special care. In fact, a circumcised penis is actually less clean than an intact penis.14

The period immediately following circumcision is a dangerous time for a newborn’s penis. The wound left by the procedure is considerable: “[i]t is not just the circular point of union between the outer and inner layers of the remaining skin. Before a baby is circumcised, his foreskin must be torn from his glans, literally skinning it alive. This creates a large open area of raw, bleeding flesh, covered at best with a layer of undeveloped proto-mucosa. Germs can easily enter the damaged tissue and bloodstream through the raw glans and, even more easily, through the incision itself. Even after the wound has healed, the externalized glans and meatus are still forced into constant unnatural contact with urine, feces, chemically treated diapers, and other contaminants.”15

As mentioned above, an infant’s cut penis is more likely to be infected or irritated, because it does not have the protective foreskin it was born with. An intact penis requires no special care. A quick anatomy lesson: the foreskin and glans (the “head” of the penis) develop as one tissue. They are actually fused together, so the act of circumcision is akin to peeling your fingernail from its nailbed. As the intact child grows, skin cells in the foreskin and glans are sloughed off and replaced; this is the smegma that some parents see as tiny white pearls throughout infancy. But contrary to some advice, parents do not need to do anything to clean an infant’s penis. Do not use q-tips or special wipes, do not take special measures to irrigate the penis, and never never retract the foreskin. Be sure that anyone who changes a diaper knows not to retract the penis. At every doctor’s appointment you go to, remind your doctor not to retract before s/he ever touches your child. Retraction will occur on its own; that might be when the child is 5 years old, it might not be until adolescence. After puberty, intact males will learn to retract the foreskin when bathing.16

Myth #3: My religion directs us to circumcise.

Fact: If you are Christian, you have been freed from the Old Testament covenant of circumcision. If you are Jewish or Muslim, there are several arguments against the practice that are worth your attention.

The Old Testament covenant of circumcision was lifted in the New Testament: Jesus’s crucifixion overturned the old law that required believers to shed the blood of either animals or their sons. 17

In Genesis 17, God requires his believers to follow strict commandments, circumcision among them. Circumcision was a symbolic act of belonging and faith. The act of faith changed in the New Testament: now believers need not mark their bodies and follow strict laws to be obedient. Instead, believers are called sons of God “through faith in Jesus Christ.”18 Paul emphasized faith – not adherence to the old law – as the key to righteousness.19 Paul answered the question of circumcision in Galatians: “the rite of circumcision is not required for salvation, since ‘in Christ’ all are justified by faith.”20

Christians believe that children are fearfully, wonderfully, and perfectly made. If God creates us perfectly and in His image, what right does a Christian parent have to cut part of their perfect son’s body away?

A growing number of Jewish families choose a more peaceful ceremony to fulfill their spiritual obligations rather than subject their newborn son to a traumatic procedure.21

I will not pretend to be an expert in Jewish spiritual matters. Having researched the issue for this post, however, I will list several arguments against circumcision that I have seen repeated on various sites.

Many Jewish parents feel culturally pressured into performing a bris, but they may be unaware that a growing number of Jewish parents forego this custom. And because many Jews are non-traditional, many of the circumcisions performed are for purely cultural reasons (to preserve “identity,” to ensure survival of the Jewish people).22 But there are other considerations Jewish parents may be interested in researching. For example, “‘the Torah prohibits the torture or causing of pain to any living creature.'”23 Further, if you do not keep an Orthodox lifestyle, it makes little sense to cling to the law of circumcision when you don’t adhere to the law that meat may not be eaten with dairy (for example).24 “Even among traditionalists, religious laws and practices have changed because of reconsideration and the evolving social environment.” (According to the Torah, “stubbornly disobeying one’s parents” is punishable by death; that is obviously no longer the case.)25

Perhaps the most interesting fact about circumcision and the Jewish religion is how circumcision has changed from the Old Testament. The procedure expounded by Old Testament law left much of the foreskin intact: in other words, the glans was not exposed. That all changed several hundred years ago because of dissension between Jews and Greeks. Greeks, who considered circumcision a sign of vulgarity, shunned and persecuted Jews. Jews who wanted to assimilate into the Greek culture hid their circumcised penises, prompting rabbis to demand more radical circumcision, or periah. “Periah consists of the complete stripping and shearing of the foreskin . . . .” This is the circumcision practiced in the United States today.26

Jewish parents are exploring their options today to fulfill sacred covenants without mutilating their sons. One such option is the Bris B’lee Milah, which recognizes “the spiritual and communal obligations of Jewish circumcision” in a more gentle ceremony.27

The Qur’an does not mention circumcision.28

While Muslims are the largest group in the world who advocate for circumcision, the procedure is not found in the Qur’an. Instead, it appears that the culture subscribes to the myth of “cleanliness” as the main reason for circumcising their sons. I am even less knowledgeable about the Muslim religion, so I will simply direct you to this site, which has relevant quotations from the Koran.29

Myth #4: My son should look like his father (aka the “Locker Room” argument).

Fact: Circumcision rates in the Unites States have fallen, so your son is just as likely to look like his intact neighbor as he is his circ’d dad.

The reason with arguably the least common sense is the “my kid needs to fit in” argument. Not only is circumcision on the decline in the U.S., but to cut your son’s penis for purely cosmetic reasons is insane. That would be like chopping off his nose to spite his face. Regardless, the numbers of circumcisions are dropping – today only 57% of parents are choosing to circumcise.30

Related to this argument is the “I knew someone who had to be circ’d at age 25 because of [insert rare condition here].” This one is like saying “I had a great-aunt with cataracts who had to have eye surgery, so I just had the doctors remove the lenses in my daughter’s eyes as soon as she was out of the womb. No use in prolonging that agony!” What?!

A few more reasons to keep your sons intact.

In case the foregoing hasn’t convinced you, let me give you just a few more reasons to leave your son in the state he was born.

1) SEX. Oh, sex. Let’s just bullet a few tidbits:

  • Erogenous Sensitivity: The foreskin is as sensitive as the fingertips or the lips of the mouth. It contains a richer variety and greater concentration of specialized nerve receptors than any other part of the penis.
  • Coverage During Erection: As it becomes erect, the penile shaft becomes thicker and longer. The double-layered foreskin provides the skin necessary to accommodate the expanded organ and to allow the penile skin to glide freely, smoothly, and pleasurably over the shaft and glans.
  • Self-Stimulating Sexual Functions: The foreskin’s double-layered sheath enables the penile shaft skin to glide back and forth over the penile shaft. The foreskin can normally be slipped all the way, or almost all the way, back to the base of the penis, and also slipped forward beyond the glans. This wide range of motion is the mechanism by which the penis and the orgasmic triggers in the foreskin, frenulum, and glans are stimulated.
  • Sexual Functions in Intercourse: One of the foreskin’s functions is to facilitate smooth, gentle movement between the mucosal surfaces of the two partners during intercourse. The foreskin enables the penis to slip in and out of the vagina nonabrasively inside its own slick sheath of self-lubricating, movable skin. The female is thus stimulated by moving pressure rather than by friction only, as when the male’s foreskin is missing.
  • The foreskin fosters intimacy between the two partners by enveloping the glans and maintaining it as an internal organ. The sexual experience is enhanced when the foreskin slips back to allow the male’s internal organ, the glans, to meet the female’s internal organ, the cervix-a moment of supreme intimacy and beauty.31

The simple fact is, ask any man who has had sex both ways, and you’ll get a resounding response: sex is overwhelmingly better with an intact penis.32

2) Circumcision is cruel. Remember when I said that I was convinced after seeing pictures and videos? Allow me to share a few with you (I’ll warn you that these are graphic in parts, but if we as a society are willing to impose this procedure on our sons, we should be willing to view the reality of what is happening:)

Compare a healthy, intact penis

to a circumcised one.

A list of circumcision videos

A detailed explanation of circumcision

Some more excellent articles on circumcision

3) It is easier to circumcise after retraction, if necessary.

As explained under Myth #2, the foreskin and glans are fused together at birth. After a period of some years, the foreskin will retract naturally. If there is some medical or personal reason for circumcision, that decision should be made by an informed male (and his parents, if he is a minor). Moreover, there is less chance of injury in an adult circumcision, and an older male can choose various forms of pain relief. Did you know that up to 96% of infants are circumcised with no pain relief? That’s right. The most sensitive part of their bodies is “forcibly ripped from the penis, and then slit, crushed and cut away” without anything to numb the pain.33

(4) It is sexist and degrading to males. The female equivalent of circumcision, female genital mutilation (also known as “female circumcision”), is illegal in the United States and many other countries.34 Enlightened countries have recognized that male circumcision is also genital mutilation, and their medical associations do not recommend or condone the practice.35

(5) Circumcision can interfere with breastfeeding and bonding. Because circumcised males are in such pain for an extended period after this stressful procedure, studies have shown that some babies are simply unable to suckle at their mother’s breast. Mothers who refuse to allow this procedure have a better chance at establishing a healthy breastfeeding relationship.36

(6) Circumcision makes doctors big money. Circumcision is covered by insurance and Medicaid in most states. Studies have shown that doctors charge more for the procedure in states where Medicaid covers it (therefore, doctors are guaranteed payment). And not only do doctors make easy money from the procedure itself, but they may then turn around and sell your newborn son’s foreskin to private companies for a huge profit (several companies use cells from foreskin to create expensive anti-wrinkle creams, among other things).37

(7) Once you’ve chosen to circumcise your son, you can never take it back. If you are unsure, wait. Over 80% of parents regret circ’ing their sons; read some first-hand accounts here.38

If you’ve made it this far, thank you. I am confident you will never regret making an informed decision, nor will you ever regret waiting to circumcise if you are unsure. Your son will thank you someday for leaving him intact and perfect, the way he was made.

  1. Fleiss, Paul, M.D. “What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcision” at xi (2002) (“Fleiss”)
  2. http://www.mothersagainstcirc.org/fleiss.html (“Mothering”)
  3. http://www.cirp.org/library/disease/cancer/ (“CIRP”)
  4. Mothering
  5. Mothering; see also Fleiss at 148.
  6. http://www.cirp.org/pages/whycirc.html (quoting Kellogg, John Harvey, M.D., “Treatment for Self-Abuse and its Effects, Plain Fact for Old and Young” at 295 (1888))
  7. http://www.cirp.org/pages/whycirc.html (quoting Spratling, E.J., M.D., “Masturbation in the Adult,” Medical Record, vol. 48 no. 13 at 442-43 (Sept. 28, 1895))
  8. Fleiss at 131-32.
  9. http://www.doctorsopposingcircumcision.org/info/HIVStatement.html (“HIV Statement”)
  10. HIV Statement
  11. HIV Statement (citing Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, al., for the Rakai Project Study Group. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodefficiency virus type 1. N Engl J Med 2000;1342:921-29. [Abstract
  12. Mothering (citations omitted)
  13. http://www.cirp.org/library/normal/aap/ (“Infant Care”); see also Mothering.
  14. Mothering
  15. Mothering
  16. Infant Care
  17. Galatians 2:15-16: “We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, . . . even we have believed in Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the law.”; see also http://www.sentex.net/~tcc/gal.html (“Paul’s Answer”) and http://www.udonet.com/circumcision/christian.html (“What the Bible Says”)
  18. Galatians 3:26-29: “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise.”; see also http://www.cirp.org/pages/cultural/peron1/ (“Christian Parents”)
  19. Galatians 3:24, 5:5, 22-23; see also Paul’s Answer
  20. Paul’s Answer; see also What the Bible Says and Christian Parents
  21. http://www.cirp.org/pages/cultural/bris_shalom.html (“Bris B’lee Milah”)
  22. http://jewishcircumcision.org/spectator.htm (“Circumcision: A Source of Jewish Pain”) Circumcision to perpetuate the Jewish culture is misguided: not only are 60% of non-Jewish boys in the United States circ’d, but “Muslims are the largest single group in the world who circumcise boys.” http://www.circumstitions.com/Islam.html (“Islam and Circumcision”); see also Bris B’lee Milah
  23. Circumcision: A Source of Jewish Pain (quoting Donin, H., To Be a Jew at 56 (1972))
  24. http://www.mothersagainstcirc.org/religious.htm; see also http://www.jewfaq.org/kashrut.htm
  25. Circumcision: A Source of Jewish Pain (citing Deuteronomy 21:18-21)
  26. http://www.noharmm.org/pollack.htm (citation omitted)
  27. Bris B’lee Milah
  28. Islam and Circumcision
  29. Islam and Circumcision
  30. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/285540/circumcision_rates_fall_in_the_united.html?cat=25
  31. Mothering
  32. http://www.noharmm.org/separated.htm
  33. http://www.udonet.com/circumcision/ilearned.html; see also http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9712/23/circumcision.anesthetic/ and http://www.cirp.org/library/pain/ and http://www.cirp.org/library/complications/EMLA/
  34. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_genital_mutilation#Other_regions (“Female Genital Mutilation”)
  35. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Male_circumcision#Policies_of_various_national_medical_associations; see also http://www.canadiancrc.com/Circumcision_Genital_Mutilation_Male-Female_Children.aspx
  36. http://www.nocirc.org/statements/breastfeeding.php
  37. http://www.circumstitions.com/$$$.html; see also http://www.blogher.com/babies-foreskin-used-make-cosmetics-ethical
  38. Fleiss at xi.

35 Responses to:
"Our Perfect Son"

  1. Dionna

    Excellent stuff.

    I would just like to add that the USA and Israel are the only countries in the world where a majority of their infant boys are circumcised. I suspect many people in the USA assume its much higher in the rest of the world than it actually is.

    Also where did parents get the right to circumcise from? It was passed to them in the early 1970s by doctors. When birth became hospitalized, the US circumcision industry simply claimed the right to circumcise all boys they could get their hands on. Seeking parental consent was optional. Got that?

  2. Dionna

    DH and I couldn't decide whether to leave DS intact or not. He wanted him circumcised, I didn't want anyone hurting him. Since we couldn't come to an agreement, we decided to leave him intact and let him decide for himself when he's grown. (I guess that means I won :D)

    Since then I've become very involved in the intactivism movement and will continue to fight for the rights of baby boys, no matter what other people say. No child should be cosmetically altered against his or her will.

  3. Dionna

    Thanks for this great blog! I'm so happy to know there are so many parents out there giving their newborn sons the best gift they could possibly give them. As a parent, we chose to leave our son (and two daughters) intact. Now they are healthy, happy young adults, and I hope they make the same wise choice when the time comes for them to become parents. It's time to rid the world of this barbaric practice!

  4. Dionna

    And, to Sarah… yes WE (the government) WILL tell you what you are and are not allowed to "do your children". You are not allowed to circumcise your infant daughters. In the U.S. that's against the law! It's time that boys received equal protection. Get over your remorse and anger and educate yourself.

  5. Dionna

    My surgeon elected to give my son a circusicion during a medical procedure without asking me, he never asked and reading all this shit just makes me feel like shit, you know it's great that you support something, but not everyone has a choice you know, I have thought long and hard about suing the hospital but I can't afford it, now I just feel more shitty after raeding this…I support non circusicion, but you have not left any room for anyone else to leave here feeling good except those that do.
    I am a terrific Mom:(

  6. Dionna

    Someone whose thoughts:

    I'm sure you are a terrific mom, and this article was in no way meant to condemn parents who had their choice taken away from them. Your situation is not unheard of, I wish I knew if there was a way for you to get justice. I recommend checking around MDC's forum called "The Case Against Circumcision": http://www.mothering.com/discussions/forumdisplay.php?f=44 You might find families who have had similar experiences. Even if you cannot get a settlement, perhaps the surgeon who did this to your son will receive professional consequences.

    Circumcision is so ingrained in the American conscious that most parents don't think they have a choice – it's a given that our sons will be cut. The things that you and I believe about leaving babies intact is the minority, but it is only by speaking out that we can save other babies.

    Please don't take offense; join me in educating other parents about the way things *should* be. It should never have crossed that surgeon's mind to mutilate your son. Let's make sure it doesn't happen to anyone else.

  7. Dionna

    Wonderful, informative and extensive posting! I agree that every parent should read this article during pregnancy to help them in the decision to leave their sons whole and intact! Thank you.

  8. Dionna

    VERY well-written & cited article!!!
    Thank you VERY much for writing it! You made some excellent points & are very convincing (of course, I'm biased!).

    Being Jewish, it was a tough decision that I struggled with for a very long time because of the tremendous amount of family pressure. Leaving my son whole and perfect is a decsion that I continue to feel good about at every single diaper change (and he's 2!)!!!

    I look forward to the day when our boys have the same rights & protection as our girls do.

  9. Dionna

    One word: BRAVO!

  10. Dionna

    Tremendous, well referenced article. Very effective ending photos comparing a healthy intact penis to a circumcised one.

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