The Effects of Circumcision on Newborn Boys

June 10th, 2010 by Dionna | 107 Comments
Posted in Circumcision/Intactivism, Compassionate Advocacy, Feed with Love and Respect, Healthy Living, natural parenting, Pregnancy and Birth

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If you are planning a hospital birth for your son, you should expect hospital staff to approach you at some point in the first day or two after your son is born to ask about circumcision. There are many long-term reasons to leave your son intact,1 but you may not have considered the more immediate benefits to you and your new baby.

No American medical association recommends infant circumcision as a routine procedure. The reason that American medical associations (and the vast majority of medical associations worldwide) do not recommend routine infant circumcision is because it is not medically necessary.2  And as Lamaze’s Healthy Birth Practice Paper #6 details, “experts agree that unless a medical reason exists, healthy mothers and babies shouldn’t be separated after birth or during the early days following birth.”3 Consequently, unless there is a medical reason to circumcise your newborn son, it is inadvisable to agree to this unnecessary medical procedure.

circumcision restraint
Immediate Consequences of Routine (Medically Unnecessary) Infant Circumcision

1. Circumcision Causes Pain and Stress: An infant’s foreskin has more than 240 feet of nerves, 20,000 nerve endings, and 3 feet of veins, arteries, and capillaries – circumcision removes all of them, causing the infant tremendous pain.4 Research has conclusively demonstrated “that circumcision has significant physiologic impact on newborns, mainly due [to] pain.”5 Serum cortisol (a hormone released in response to stress) concentrations increase during and after circumcision,6 and “[h]eart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure increase, and oxygen saturation decreases, during and shortly after circumcision.7

After circumcision, the penis has a raw, open wound. The newborn’s surgically exposed glans is re-injured by abrasion and contaminants because it is encased in diapers (including the baby’s own feces and urine, which breaks down into ammonia). Disposable diapers themselves are also often irritants, because they are laden with chemicals, dyes, and fragrances that cause further pain.

2. Circumcision Interferes with Breastfeeding: Circumcision negatively affects breastfeeding, regardless of whether infants are given Acetaminophen (Tylenol) to help manage pain immediately after circumcision. Some circumcised males are unable to suckle at all after the procedure. Mothers who leave their sons intact have a better chance at establishing a healthy breastfeeding relationship.8

3. Circumcision Disrupts Sleep: After circumcision, babies’ normal sleep patterns are disrupted. Researchers believe this may be a mechanism to cope with the stress of the procedure.9 Infants who do not get enough sleep or enough quality sleep are at risk for additional significant stress.10

4. Circumcision Can Interrupt Normal Bonding and Causes Emotional Trauma: Lamaze recognizes that “[i]nterrupting, delaying, or limiting the time that a mother and her baby spend together may have a harmful effect on their relationship and on breastfeeding success.”11 The significant stress, disrupted sleep patterns, and breastfeeding problems experienced by circumcised babies all have the potential to interrupt the normal, healthy bonding with their caregivers. Bonding is interrupted because “the circumcision procedure frequently causes the newborn to withdraw from his environment[,]” including his mother.12

Moreover, circumcision causes emotional trauma to parents. Over 80% of parents regret their circumcision  decision in the first six months of their sons’ lives. 13

Protect Your Newborn: Leave Him Intact

Unless there is a medical reason to circumcise, you and your son can only benefit by deciding to keep him safe and close to your side after birth. The newborn period is so beautiful and fleeting. There is no reason to traumatize your baby or jeopardize your breastfeeding relationship by exposing your son to needless pain and stress.

If, after thoroughly researching, you feel that the decision to circumcise is one that you must make, please wait until after those fragile newborn days. Remember, you can always decide to circumcise, you can never decide to take it back.14

This post is part of the Lamaze Healthy Birth Blog Carnival. The topic of this month’s carnival is “keeping moms and babies together after birth.”

Photo credit: peaceful parenting (site) (Facebook fan page)

  1. Please see What is Circumcision and Common Concerns, as well as the articles and research cited therein, for an explanation of the many reasons to leave your newborn son intact.
  2. For official statements of many leading medical associations worldwide, please see this list compiled by NOCIRC.
  3. Jeannette Crenshaw, “Healthy Birth Practice #6: Keep Mother and Baby Together,” (citing Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee, 2007; American Academy of Family Physicians, 2007; American Academy of Pediatrics Expert Workgroup on Breastfeeding, 2005; International Lactation Consultant Association, 1999; UNICEF/WHO, 2004; WHO, 1998)
  4. Paul Fleiss, MD, “The Case Against Circumcision
  5. Arie Alkalay, MD, “Analgesia for Non-Ritual Circumcision in Healthy Newborns
  6. Megan R. Gunner et al., “The Effects of Circumcision on Serum Cortisol and Behavior
  7. Analgesia for Non-Ritual Circumcision in Healthy Newborns; see also K.J.S. Anand et al., “Pain and Its Effects in the Human Neonate and Fetus
  8. Cynthia R. Howard, MD, “Acetaminophen Analgesia in Neonatal Circumcision: The Effect on Pain.” “Immediately” being 2 hours after the procedure. Acetaminophen is shown to have a positive effect on pain starting around 6 hours after the procedure.
  9. Thomas F. Anders, MD and Robert J. Chalemian, MD, The Effects of Circumcision on Sleep-Wake States in Human Neonates; Robert N. Emde, MD, et al., “Stress and Neonatal Sleep
  10. Avi Sedah, “Stress, Trauma, and Sleep in Children
  11. Healthy Birth Practice #6: Keep Mother and Baby Together (citing (Enkin et al., 2000)
  12. “Position Statement: The Effects of Circumcision on Breastfeeding” (citing Stress and Neonatal Sleep and Richard E. Marshall et al., “Circumcision: II. Effects Upon Mother-Infant Interaction“)
  13. Paul Fleiss, MD, “What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcision” at xi
  14. Of course, allowing your son to make his own informed decisions about his genitals is ideal. Every person should have the right to decide whether to keep his or her genitals whole. Wouldn’t you want to have the option? For more, see “Circumcision FAQ,” What if we want to have our son circumcised?

107 Responses to:
"The Effects of Circumcision on Newborn Boys"

  1. daisy   TooTooDaisy

    To Sara: I do hope you can let go of the guilt. You were brave to post. It is moms exactly like you that I am hoping to reach over at http://www.tootoomama.com.

  2. Lauren

    Dionna, I just wanted to thank you for posting this wonderful article. From the time I starting thinking about circumcision, I found myself against it. Then I did the research and have become extremely opposed to it. It really should be banned in all but medically necessary cases (for minors – and so mamas like Sara, who are just trying to do their best, don’t make a decision they will regret). It’s appalling that the practice of genital mutilation is allowed in this country (US).

    Unlike you, I do not have patience with the “Jodys” of the internet. Kudos to you for handling it so well, and please keep up the great posts.

  3. Joanna

    OMG! this is a load of crap! My son was taken to get circumsized and not even 20 minutes later he came back to me asleep!!! It wasn’t this torture device that everyone keeps talking about. Its healthier, cleaner, less risk of infection, better looking etc etc etc. the list could go on. Your son will thank you for this brief moment which he wont even remember for the rest of his life! Dont torture the poor guy when he is in high school and embarrassed because he has foreskin! ASK a man rather he wants foreskin or not and that will tell you! I swear, articles on the internet anymore are so exaggerated!! Anything to get some hype in people!

    • Dionna   CodeNameMama

      Joanna – babies often don’t cry when under extreme stress/pain. From http://www.drmomma.org/2009/11/circumcision-how-much-does-it-hurt.html (links to more info in original article):

      “Dr. Mark Reiss, long time physician and executive vice president of the esteemed, Doctors Opposing Circumcision, discusses ample research which shows us that even those babies who don’t scream and cry while being cut apart – even the 4% who do receive anesthesia – still show significant and detrimental physiological changes in body and brain activity. Those who do not scream bloody murder show (on neurological scans) to be lapsing into a state of neurogenic shock and/or coma (which can sometimes occur immediately). To the untrained eye (i.e. the parent who says ‘my baby didn’t cry’) it appears as though the baby has just fallen asleep… How blind we sometimes are.”

    • mrs.williams

      whether this comment was bashed by someone who obviously thinks they know everything, and apparently never leaves the desk I’ve got to agree who is she or anyone else for that matter to speak on behalf of an infant who can’t speak for themselves?

      you don’t know if it hurts, or causes stress, or if they miss it, as a matter of fact every single pediatrician or doctor willing to comment that i have ever spoken with not only reccomends circumsicion, but says that to an infant the nerve endings haven’t even fully formed yet and does not hurt them it can cause slight discomfort, which can be resolved with a little tlc and some tylenol, and a good rest.

      people honestly need to just keep there opinions to themselves especially if they want to elaborate on not one but most of the facts.

      i very much agree with your comment both my boys did very well and slept soon after and woke up happy as well.

  4. Lisa C   edenwild

    Wow, some very passionate comments here. I think bringing out awareness of this topic is important. I didn’t give my son’s circumcision nearly enough thought, and I kind of feel like we just “followed the crowd” on this, and I regret it. I think a lot of people out there are just doing it because everyone else is and not giving it a lot of thought. I based my decision on a two-sided argument; however, that argument only talked about medical aspects and not emotional or sexual, which are SO IMPORTANT. The bottom line, I think, is that we are taking something from our sons without their consent and for no real medical reason. The decision should be left to them. Period.

  5. janetlansbury   janetlansbury

    I have a “trust in nature” approach to parenting, but would never identify as “crunchy” (for one thing, I could never imagine saying that I “wear” another human being and find the term ‘babywearing’ offensive and despectful towards babies). Because my husband is circ’ed, and seemed to be leaning towards the “like father, like son” point-of-view, I was freaked about having a son. Not that I wouldn’t be heard by my husband, but that he would be in some way embarrassed, rather than proud of his boy if he was intact. I was relieved to give birth twice to daughters. When I was pregnant a third time, we found out that we were having a boy. I begged my husband to do some circ research. He did, and found no medical reason at all for the procedure. I was so incredibly thrilled and relieved that my husband would come to the decision on his own. My son is 8 and knows that he is different from his dad and most of his friends. He’s been slightly uneasy about it at times, but it hasn’t been a big issue. I really hope it won’t be. Your post is easing some of my worries. Thanks!

  6. Mike

    If circumcision isn’t a bad thing, parents should leave their sons intact until they are old enough to make their own decision about whether or not to have the cosmetic surgery. And really, that’s all it is…cosmetics.

    And as for it being a religious custom…so is removing a young girls clitoris, surgically closing her vagina, honor killings…all sorts of things can be done in the name of faith. Whether or not you agree just depends on your religion.

  7. Kelly

    To those mamas who feel guilt, let it become what it should be. Anger. not at yourself, but at a culture and lack of information that would allow you to make an informed decision.

  8. Gillian

    Coming in a bit late, but wanted to add my comment nevertheless. It’s interesting how much of this debate comes down to what is the cultural norm. I live in Scotland, where circumcision is not the norm. I don’t think I know of any children born here who were circumcised. Personally, I don’t get it!

    The norm here is for ‘intact’ penises, and it’s what people expect to see. (saying that, i’ve only ever seen my husband’s and my 2 boys!) I don’t understand why anyone would want to inflict what surely must be a painful process on their teeny tiny newborn.

    My firstborn had to have blood taken, and that was bad enough – but medically necessary. To put either of my boys through something that (in my very humble opinion) is more for cosmetic reasons than anything else seems strange to me on this side of the pond.

    As I say though, I know my opionions are very much affected by the culture of the places I’ve grown up. Maybe I’d think differently if I’d grown up in a country where circumcision is the norm. We’ll never know!

    Very interesting debate, and I’m fascinated by the strength of feeling revealed in the previous posts.

  9. Jen

    It does not matter what kind of penis YOU like. If you have a penis and you like it a certain way then YOU are welcome to undergo genital reduction surgery to please your sexual preference. However, making decisions about another person’s body, especially their primary sex organ, is unethical. Every child deserves the right to make decisions about the function and appearance of THEIR most private area. By leaving children intact you give THEM the choice…this is what bodily integrity is all about folks.

  10. Megan

    I read all the comments on this. I believe it is a personal choice. I understand people will believe what they wish and take stock in research that supports their beliefs. I for one did circumsize my son. I do not feel bad about it, and would do it again. The reason I chose to circumsize is simple. There is research done by multiple sources that indicate that the risk of contracting HIV is lower if your penis is cicumsized. It also has a slight decrease in the chance of giving HIV to a sexual partner. Perhaps this is research you do not believe in, or do not feel is enough of a reason to alter a child’s body. I do see a drastic difference between male and female circumsizion. This is from knowing people both male and female who have been cut.

    I have attached a link to the CDC that shows the list of research that has been done.

    http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/circumcision.htm

    • Dionna   CodeNameMama

      Hi Megan – thank you for reading and for writing such a respectful response. I’m going to copy/paste some info from this post that I wrote a few months ago. In particular, I’d like people who are concerned about the HIV rates of circ’d v. intact to look at the bolded line. BOTH circ’d and intact men have a LESS THAN 1% CHANCE of contracting HIV/AIDS. Personally, I would rather have my whole genitals than for my parents to have cut me, just to lessen my already incredibly SLIM chances of contracting HIV:

      1. Circumcision does not prevent HIV/AIDS: “Transmission of HIV infection is caused by risky behaviors, such as multiple sex partners, failure to use condoms, and contaminated instruments or needles.” Recent studies, however, claim that circumcised men in Africa have a lower chance of contracting the AIDS virus than men who are intact. Aside from the fact that scientists and scholars have questioned the methods and results of those studies, there are several compelling reasons that the African research is inapplicable when discussion routine infant circumcision. (1)

      First, other studies provide evidence that the exact opposite is true: circumcised men in Africa are actually more likely to contract the AIDS virus than are intact men. (2) Second, it makes no scientific sense to compare the behavior of adult men in Africa to the behavior of infants in the United States. The populations “have too little in common . . . .”

      Third, “the US has the highest rate of medically unnecessary, nontherapeutic infant circumcision in the world – about 56 percent of male babies today undergo the procedure, . . . and yet the HIV infection rate in North America is twice the rate in Europe, where circumcision rates are low.” If circumcision prevented HIV, it should logically follow that the United States would have some of the lowest rates of AIDS, since men have traditionally been circumcised here. That is not the case. (3) Fourth, the average sexually active heterosexual American male has a 0.03% chance of becoming infected with HIV in his lifetime. If that heterosexual male was high risk? He still only has a 0.3% chance of contracting HIV in his lifetime. Circumcision has no effect on that number, but the use of condoms will drastically decrease the risk. (4)

      “Circumcision cannot prevent the spread of HIV; circumcised men contract HIV, transmit HIV, and die from AIDS. ” Moreover, circumcision does nothing to prevent the transmission of HIV to a female partner. (5) Circumcision is not an HIV vaccine. To protect your children from HIV and other STDs, educate them about safe sex practices and teach them how to use condoms.

      • Megan

        Thanks for your response. I guess I don’t think research about hetrosexual males tells the whole story as many males are homosexual. Further, although adult males in Africa and infants in the United States are different populations, male infants in the United States do in fact grow up to be adult males who have sexual relationships.

        I again, think choosing to circumsize or not is a completely personal choice. There is an interesting phenomenon where women feel it is ok to make other women feel less of a mother, judge, them, or belittle their choices. I guess in my mind whether you breastfeed, bottle feed, CD or sposies, co-sleep or not, vac or not, there is much more that connects us than separates us. We all love our children. We all do what we feel is best. We all judge ourselves, and none of us need to feel judgement from others. I can tell you reading posts where people exclaim their way is the right way on controversial issues does nothing to change my opinion. It does make me wonder if that is really the best approach. Leading by example, quiet support, and kindness goes much farther. I understand your post was not unkind, but the underlying message of, “If you do not agree, you are wrong and harming your child. Shame on you,” is clear. If you notice the people who commented, those who agree with you commented loudly. They already had that view. Those who disagreed, still do. Regardless, it was an interesting read.

      • Dionna   CodeNameMama

        I understand why parents might think that circumcision protects their sons, it’s been drilled into our heads by pro-circ doctors. However, the difference in percentages – regardless of sexual orientation – of getting an STD between intact/circ’d are so close that I also believe that we should spend much more effort teaching our children safe sex methods than cutting a piece of their genitalia off. Condoms will do more to protect our young men and women than circumcision.
        Personally, if there were research that showed female circumcision reduced a woman’s chance of getting an STD, I would still be very angry if I did not have my whole clitoris. That is not someone else’s decision to make for me – it is MY genitalia.
        I also think circ is a personal choice – a personal choice that should be made by the owner of the penis after he has been fully informed of the consequences.
        I’ve also been very outspoken about the fact that I simply cannot cast parents who choose to circ as villains b/c of the culture that we live in. If you google “circumcision” and do some cursory research, you might come to the conclusion that there is nothing wrong with the practice. What I am trying to do here is not pass judgment, but share information. The fact that you are uncomfortable with the information does not mean that I passed judgment on you – it might mean, though, that you might need to reexamine your decision. There’s nothing wrong with coming to a different conclusion after reassessing (or learning new) information.
        I have had many parents email me (as has Danelle from peaceful parenting) that have had their eyes opened by information on the consequences of circumcision. It is definitely not true that all of “those who disagreed, still do.”

        For more on this subject, try:
        The Nuts and Bolts of HIV in the USA
        African HIV & Circumcision Study Ends Early

  11. Lucky

    If the procedure is too painful to watch, it’s probably too painful to do to your baby!! LOL. Especially without ANY proven health benefits. My uncircumcised son has had a perfectly healthy infancy. Each parent might try speaking to adult uncircumcised males before making a decision to get a clearer perspective.

  12. I let my husband decide whether or not our child was going to get circumcised without doing any research on it. It ended up being one of the biggest mistakes of my life. I am a new mommy, so I’m sure that I will probably make mistakes that are even worse, but not if I can help it. Read my personal experience/story about my son’s circumcision at http://antisheephood.wordpress.com.

  13. mrs.williams

    Obviously this was a very well thought out post, and seems to be quite researched. However a lot of it is complete and total crap.
    I have two boys myself both of whom are circumsized one when they turned 1 and the other at 2 weeks of age. My oldest was a bit fussy for a day and they baby not much different. Although I did take proper procedure to care for them to make them more comfortable.

    While it is not medically neccesary and more of a prefferential decision, more often times than not a pediatrician, and most hospitals will reccomend circumsicion, and there are quite a few medical advantages too the procedure. I feel I have indeed protected my children by circumsizing them. They have less risk for bacterial infection, and STD, not to mention or the more arbitrary of the advantages 90% or more men are circumsized.

    While I respect your decision you should have the same respect for those of us that do believe in circumsision.

    • Dionna   CodeNameMama

      The medical research and evidence that being intact are medically beneficial are complete crap? I’m aware that there are a lot of feelings about circ., especially from parents who chose to circ. But the fact of the matter is that this information is not crap.

      For example, your assertion that cut men are at a lower risk for STDs: the United States “has the highest rate of circumcision of any Western nation (by FAR the highest as our rates are about 50% and the next closest is Canada with a rate around 10%). We also have the HIGHEST rate of all STDs of any Western nation (including HIV). Developed nations where 98-99% of their boys/men remain intact have the lowest rates of STDs (including HIV). If circumcision ‘protected’ against diseases[,] . . . we would NOT see these figures to such an extreme and obvious degree.”
      Please read more in “Researching Circumcision, Common Concerns” for more on STD research.

      And 90% of men are circ’d? Please, please read before you start spouting statistics. The circumcision rate in the US has been steadily declining for the past several years – it is currently at its lowest rate – only 33% of parents in the US today are choosing to cut their sons. What wonderful news!

      And you’re right – oftentimes (esp. in the past) doctors and hospitals would not only assume that parents were going to have the procedure done, but they would recommend it. Thankfully, doctors are starting to discover that the “evidence” supporting circumcision is patently false or at the very least overridden by the multitude of data in favor of leaving boys as perfect as the day they were born.

      I am very sorry that your doctors mislead you and that you were not exposed to research supporting leaving your sons intact. I do hope that you will take time to educate yourself – some of the most impassioned “intactivists” are mothers of circumcised sons.

  14. Brittany

    http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0020298#pmed-0020298-g002
    http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/130/3/585.full.pdf+html
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673607603134
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673607603122
    http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa011688
    http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2000/10200/Male_circumcision_and_risk_of_HIV_infection_in.18.aspx

    Just a few (of many many) studies that suggest there are medical benefits to male circumcision including a reduced incidence of HIV & AIDS, HPV, penile cancer, AND HPV and cervical cancer in their sexual partners. Included in this is the official American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on the issue. I do have to admit that most of the AIDS studies were conducted in Africa (probably due to the high occurrence of AIDS there overall) and thus they may not accurately account for potential disparities between cultures/races/etc. I agree with others that while it’s expected that you would provide information that backs your viewpoint, to completely disregard that there are any viable opposing arguments is ignorant. At least some balance and acknowledgement of counter-arguments would add more legitimacy to your point of view and possibly help you reach MORE people by not making other parents feel alienated and intimidated by your overwhelmingly one-sided information. I also believe that while a previous poster was very disrespectful in the way she presented her opposing arguments, your responses were equally disrespectful despite your qualifying statements that you were responding “as respectfully as [you could].” I chose to circ my son because my research indicated that the health benefits were substantial and, despite the fact that I’m a fairly crunchy mom in other aspects of life (cloth diaper, breastfeed, baby carry, not entirely parenting related, but I drive a Prius), I chose to do what I could to mitigate my son’s chances of contracting a horrible and deadly disease or spreading a disease that could be deadly to his future partners. I don’t see it as mutilation, it took 5 seconds, they numbed the area with Lidocaine, the my son did not cry, and he breastfed perfectly about 30 seconds later. In the following days he was not fussy, he never cried when I changed his diaper, and within a few days it was totally healed. It is the removal of SKIN, not, as someone else on here characterized it, “CUTTING OFF HEALTHY GENITALIA” and characterizing it as such is totally unfair and misleading.

  15. Steve P

    Having read this I am sooo glad that I immigrated to Australia where male circumcision is banned in publc hospitals. It was nice and relaxing not to have to worry about chasing knife happy doctors away. I think Australia’s anti-circumcision stance is due to the British influence. (Circumcision was pretty much abandoned in Great Britain in the 1950s).

    I’d like to add a slightly different perspective. I feel really bad for parents like Sara and Lisa C. I agree that they should not feel guilty or be criticised. In fact, they should be respected for having the strength and self confidence to think for themselves and change their minds.

    However, the doctors who did not inform, or in some cases outright lied to, these parents deserve ridicule, contempt and quite honestly imprisonment. May I suggest that a good therapy for guilt is positive action. Every time parents who regret circumcising feel bad or guilty they should redirect their bad feeling at the doctors who have failed them and failed to honour their professional oathes. These doctors deserve to have their lives turned into a living hell.

    Sound extreme? Well doctors earn large salaries because they’re supposed to know better. That’s why patients, such as Sara and Lisa and millions of others, trust them. How can American doctors not see that virtually no one in England, Europe or Aus/NZ is circumcised and yet men in these countries have LOWER disease rates and of the genitals and lower STD rates than Americans?! It’s just not credible that American doctors don’t know this. It has to be willful disregard for the facts.

    I realise that some doctors feel they have to be ‘unbiased’. But (a) doctors aren’t paid to be unbiased. That’s the difference between a profession and a trade. Doctors don’t refrain from telling people to quit smoking because they ‘might upset them’ or don’t want to ‘offend their life choices’. They tell them what’s good for them. And (b) even asking a parent if they want their baby cut is endorsing the procedure. A parent who is not informed might reasonably assume that they are being asked if they want to circumcise because there must be some benefit. The only professionally responsible thing to do is for doctors to not even bring up/endore circumcision and refuse to perform it.

    There’s a genuine legal question a to whether a parent’s consent is valid if a procedure is not medically necessary. One young man in New York did sue his doctor within three years of turning 18 arguing that his mother’s consent was invalid. However the case settled before it could get to court. I.e. the guy received money but he’s not allowed to say how much.

    Given that many men have to live with the knowledge that part of their penis was amputated for no good reason perhaps it would be a good thing if doctors who perform the ritual mutilations (what else is it if there’s no benefit?!) have to live with the fear that they might lose their house or sports car in a lawsuit or be humiliated in public someday?

    n.b. I’m not talking about doctors who perform circumcision in the rare cases of genuine birth defects. But in such cases an ObyGyn is really, really committing malpractice if they circumcise because a kid with a birth defect to his penis should be referred to a paediatric urologist not an amatuer surgeon who lacks urological training. Case in point, paediatric urologists spend about a third of their time trying to repair botched circumcisions!

    Sorry for the long rant but I reaaly wanted to add another perspective and try to give parents the idea that they can empower themselves by taking action rather than simply shouldering all the blame themselves.

  16. Gerry Santiago

    For any parents who regret having their sons circumcised or guys that wish they can have their foreskins back like it never happened, Foregen is currently working on a way to due so. I would check it out at http://www.foregen.org

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